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Authors : Iskid Jacquet, Jieyong Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Ke Wang and Sen Liang
Affiliated organization : Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Type of publication : Article
Date de publication : June 2022
According to the survey conducted for this research, 76% of educated farmers have adequate basic knowledge of chemical inputs and can utilize them correctly, healthily, and effectively. On the contrary, more than 60% of uneducated farmers do not know how to apply chemical inputs correctly, which significantly limits the favorable advantages of chemical inputs to cotton planting.
In addition, whether farmers are educated also affects their attitude towards the protection of their safety. For instance, 88.4% of educated farmers use protective wear when treating the field, and the remaining 11.6% of educated farmers do not use protective clothing due to the lack of money to purchase them, but are aware of their importance. In contrast, 81.2% of uneducated farmers admit they do not use protective clothing when treating fields with agricultural chemical inputs, leaving just 18.8% that use protective clothing.
Some farmers, mostly those that are uneducated, ignore the importance of the use of protective clothing. These farmers are not interested in wearing protective clothes, arguing that the use of protective clothing is a waste of money.
A simple comparative study was performed to obtain more information on the farmers’ thought processes. During the survey, it was discovered that there was a group of farmers who had received specific training from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to encourage them to grow organic cotton. As a result, the survey investigated farmers who grew cotton without using pesticides.
Organic farmers unanimously agreed that chemical inputs harmed the environment. When asked whether there is a consequence to utilizing chemical input, 51.20% of educated farmers responded affirmatively; 8.03% responded that they were unsure of a consequence. According to 40.77% of educated farmers who utilize chemical input, there is no harmful impact on the environment. In comparison, 14.45% of uneducated farmers believe that chemical input has negative consequences; 56.81% presume that using chemical input has no negative consequences, and 29.74% are unsure whether the use of chemical input has negative consequences. Similarly, it is important to mention that not all farmers have the same understanding based on their schooling.
During the survey, it was discovered that there was a group of farmers who had received specific training from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to encourage them to grow organic cotton. As a result, the survey investigated farmers who grew cotton without using pesticides
Furthermore, 64.5% of educated farmers stated that they do not use chemical input when cultivating cotton for food crops, while 36.5% claimed that they do. In contrast, all uneducated farmers indicated that they use cotton chemical input to grow food crops, while all organic farmers said that they do not use chemical input.
The government of Benin may advocate a system of industrial education that blends teaching, research, and manufacturing. That will be demonstrated primarily through a greater emphasis on the transmission of practical knowledge and the acquisition of practical skills and capacities (in terms of agricultural chemical inputs, cultivation techniques, among others). For that, the government’s schooling system should carefully regulate the practical instruction of Beninese agricultural colleges. Regular schools should also provide space and courses that encourage young people to participate in agricultural activities. For instance, general education secondary schools in Benin may incorporate these metrics into their courses. Through classroom instruction and hands-on training, children of all ages can acquire theoretical knowledge and practical skills. They may swiftly adjust their duties upon graduation from primary or secondary school, and some of them could develop into exceptional farmers. In addition to having specific technical and operational management capacities, they will be able to obtain better economic rewards than ordinary farmers, which will aid in developing agriculture in Benin.
First, the government should adopt incentive programs to entice farmers to join agricultural cooperatives and reinforce agricultural cooperatives’ functions to increase the usage of organic fertilizers. Second, the government should investigate how to offer more farmers actual subsidies for organic fertilizers. Subsidies at a lower cost should promote organic fertilizers rather than chemical fertilizers. Third, the government’s current rural land policy should be strengthened to encourage more farmers to manage larger farms. It is necessary to pursue a policy of attracting potential farmers capable of managing larger farms.
The government of Benin may advocate a system of industrial education that blends teaching, research, and manufacturing. That will be demonstrated primarily through a greater emphasis on the transmission of practical knowledge and the acquisition of practical skills and capacities (in terms of agricultural chemical inputs, cultivation techniques, among others)
Due to the near-complete lack of mechanization in Beninese agriculture, the government and development actors in the country, such as non-governmental organizations, can reward farmers who attend sessions, pass various exams, and obtain satisfactory results by providing them with agricultural machinery. Additionally, the Beninese government might encourage current farmers (those who cannot return to school and lack academic abilities) to attend periodic instruction or practice sessions. To fully grasp this concept, it would be prudent to begin on a modest scale, such as a district or town.
Agriculture development is contingent upon a certain level of agricultural education. Agricultural producers require only essential agricultural expertise to operate in agricultural production circumstances. Cotton production development in Benin requires scientific and technological expertise, critical for agricultural development. However, if Beninese cotton is to thrive worldwide, the Beninese government must act rapidly to implement solutions and provide systematic instruction and training to farmers; otherwise, success and conquest of huge international markets would be difficult. Apart from increasing production, education is required to mechanize Beninese agriculture, particularly in Kandi. Farmers’ education has little effect on the use of agricultural machinery because mechanization will promote large-scale production and increase the quality of agricultural products, which will require further education and/or training for farmers. Benin’s mechanized agriculture would enable and promote access to agricultural machinery by significantly enhancing agricultural workers’ output.